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What are the symptoms of a traumatic brain injury (TBI)?

Traumatic brain injury symptoms will vary depending on the severity of the injury. For some TBIs, symptoms may not appear for days or weeks. For other injuries, symptoms may be readily apparent. Moreover, each person experiences symptoms differently, and many people may not be aware that they are experiencing TBI symptoms. 

Mild TBI symptoms include:

  • Confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Blurry visions
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Vomiting
  • Mood swings
  • Nausea
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Memory loss
  • Brief loss of consciousness

Moderate to severe TBIs may display the following symptoms:

  • Seizures
  • Losing consciousness for several minutes or hours
  • Convulsions
  • Dilated pupils in one or both eyes
  • Coma
  • Slurred speech 
  • Continuous vomiting
  • Weakness in fingers or toes
  • Extreme confusion
  • Continued nausea
  • Unable to wake up

If these symptoms are not medically assessed, the issues may turn into long-term complications that can include:

  • Seizures
  • Loss of hearing
  • Trouble balancing
  • Double vision
  • Loss of sight
  • Facial muscle paralysis
  • Loss of smell or taste
  • Frequent headaches
  • Difficulty writing
  • Cognitive difficulties
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Difficulty controlling emotions
  • Mood swings

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